Acceptable Conditions of Work Executive Summary Romania is a constitutional republic with a democratic, multiparty parliamentary system. The bicameral parliament consists of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies, both elected by popular vote.
Observers considered presidential elections held on November 10 and 24 and parliamentary elections in to have been generally free and fair and without significant irregularities. The DGPI has responsibility for intelligence gathering, counterintelligence, and preventing and combatting vulnerabilities and risks that could seriously disrupt public order or target Ministry Niger Woman Search. Internal Affairs operations. The minister of interior appoints the head of DGPI.
The Romanian Intelligence Service SRIthe domestic security Niger Woman Search., investigates terrorism and national security threats. The president nominates and the parliament confirms the SRI director. Civilian authorities maintained effective control over SRI and the security agencies that reported to the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
Significant human rights issues included: police violence against Roma; endemic official corruption; law enforcement authorities condoning violence against women and girls; and abuse against institutionalized persons with disabilities. The judiciary took steps to prosecute and punish officials who committed abuses, but authorities did not have effective mechanisms to do so and delayed proceedings involving alleged police abuse and corruption, with the result that many of the cases ended in acquittals.
Impunity for perpetrators of human rights abuses was a continuing problem. Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from: a. Arbitrary Deprivation of Life and Other Unlawful or Politically Motivated Killings There were reports that the government or its agents committed arbitrary or unlawful killings.
On July 19, in the city of Vatra Dornei, three gendarmes tried for 10 minutes to immobilize physically a year-old man suspected of inappropriately touching a child and used tear gas spray against him. During the intervention, the man became unconscious and was taken to the hospital, where he died the following day.
In the trial began of former communist-era Securitate officials Marin Niger Woman Search., Vasile Hodis, and Tudor Postelnicu, accused of crimes against humanity before Niger Woman Search. Bucharest Court of Appeals. They were charged in the death of dissident Gheorghe Ursu, who was arrested and allegedly beaten to death by investigators and cellmates in According to official figures, the violence resulted in hundreds of injuries, illegal arrests, and four deaths.
Media estimates of the number injuries and deaths were much higher. Prosecutors opened the preliminary phase of the Niger Woman Search. before the High Court of Cassation Niger Woman Search. Justice on November 29, where it remained underway. Disappearance There were no reports of disappearances by or on behalf of government authorities. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment The constitution and law prohibit such practices, but there were reports from nongovernmental organizations NGOs and media that police and gendarmes mistreated Niger Woman Search.
abused prisoners, pretrial detainees, Roma, and other vulnerable persons, including homeless persons, women, sex workers, and substance abusers, primarily with excessive force, including beatings. For example, journalists alleged that in September four agents of the Bucharest Sector 3 police used excessive force against two Romani teenagers caught fishing in a public park.
In February prosecutors in Bucharest Sector 5 opened a case against 15 employees and the director of the Rahova Penitentiary Hospital for allegedly beating several inmates between and and falsifying medical records to cover up the abuses. As of September the investigation of 16 defendants and Niger Woman Search. suspects remained pending.
The European Court of Human Rights ECHR ruled in a number of cases that the justice system had failed to deliver a just outcome in cases of police brutality, particularly against Roma and cases involving abuses in psychiatric hospitals. The average time for a ruling in cases of alleged police abuse of Roma was nearly four years. In April the ECHR issued a ruling on a case of excessive use of force by police and the gendarmerie during a raid in the village of Valcele, Covasna County, against a Romani family that, as a consequence, suffered several injuries that required medical care.
According to the court, authorities automatically connected ethnicity to criminal behavior, and thus their ethnic profiling of the victims was discriminatory. Police officers were frequently exonerated in cases of alleged beatings and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment.
Low salaries also contributed to making individual law enforcement officials susceptible to bribery. According to the United Nations, three allegations of sexual exploitation and abuse by Romanian peacekeepers reported in and were pending. One case involved the alleged sexual abuse rape of a minor.
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The peacekeeper in question was repatriated by the United Nations. The other two cases involved alleged sexual exploitation transactional sex.
Investigations by Romanian authorities were pending. Prison and Detention Center Conditions Prison conditions remained harsh and overcrowded and did not meet international standards. The abuse Niger Woman Search. prisoners by authorities and other prisoners reportedly continued to be a problem. Physical Conditions: According to official figures, overcrowding was a problem, particularly in those prisons that did not meet the standard of four square meters 43 square feet per prisoner set by the Council of Europe.
Conditions remained generally poor within the prison system, and observers noted insufficient spending on repair and retrofitting. According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, men and women, juveniles and adults, and pretrial detainees and convicted persons were not held together. Media outlets, NGOs, and the ombudsperson reported that prisoners regularly assaulted and abused fellow inmates.
According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the NPA did not refer any of the complaints submitted by inmates in to prosecutors.
Inmates have the possibility of filing complaints with law enforcement agencies and judges. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs Niger Woman Search. that in judges admitted complaints filed by inmates, compared with in A number of prisons provided insufficient medical care, and inmates complained that food quality was poor and sometimes insufficient in quantity. In some prisons heating and ventilation were inadequate.
The bicameral parliament consists of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies, both elected by popular vote. Observers considered local elections held on September 27 and parliamentary elections held on December 6 to have been generally free and fair and without significant irregularities.
Persons with mental disorders did not receive sufficient care and were frequently isolated by other inmates. The ADHR-HC stated that the actual number of persons who had mental health problems was three times higher than the number of inmates who received treatment for mental illness. The ADHR-HC stated that some pretrial detention facilities had inadequate conditions, particularly in terms of hygiene and overcrowding.
Such facilities were often located in basements and had no Niger Woman Search. light and inadequate sanitation. In some pretrial facilities and prisons, there was no possibility for confidential meetings between detainees and their families or attorneys.
Administration: Independent authorities did not always investigate credible allegations of inhuman conditions. Independent Monitoring: The government permitted monitoring visits by independent human rights observers, and Niger Woman Search. visits occurred during the year. The ombudsperson also visited prisons as part of his mandate to monitor places of confinement. Arbitrary Arrest or Detention The constitution and law prohibit arbitrary arrest and detention, and the government generally respected these prohibitions.
The law provides for the right of any person to challenge the lawfulness of his or her detention. Arrest Procedures and Treatment of Detainees By law only judges may issue detention and search warrants, and the government generally respected this provision. Authorities must inform detainees at the time of their arrest of the charges against them and their legal rights, including the right to remain silent and the right to an attorney.
Police must notify detainees of their rights in a language they understand before obtaining a statement and bring them before a court within 24 hours of arrest.
Although authorities generally respected these requirements, there were some reports of abuses during the year. Depending on the circumstances of the case, Niger Woman Search. law allows home detention and pretrial investigation under judicial supervision, which requires the person accused to report regularly to law enforcement officials. A bail system also exists but was seldom used.
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Detainees have the right to counsel and, in most cases, had prompt access to a lawyer of their choice. Authorities provided indigent detainees legal counsel at public expense.
A detainee has the right to meet privately with counsel before the first police interview. A lawyer may be present Cauta? i o femeie tunisiana the interview or interrogation. The law allows police to take an individual to a police station without a warrant for endangering others or disrupting public order. Police reportedly used this provision to hold persons for up to 24 hours.
Since Niger Woman Search. held in such cases were not formally detained or arrested, authorities did not recognize their right to counsel.
2020 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Romania
Pretrial Detention: A judge may order pretrial detention for up to 30 days. A court may extend this period in day increments up to a maximum of days. Under the law detainees may hold courts and prosecutors liable for unjustifiable, illegal, or abusive measures.
Denial of Fair Public Trial Lack of sufficient personnel, physical space, and technology to enable the judiciary to act swiftly and efficiently continued, resulting in excessively long trials. The constitution provides for an independent judiciary. It generally maintained transparency of operations and acted to suspend judges and prosecutors suspected of legal violations.
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The government generally respected judicial independence and impartiality, but instances of political messaging targeting courts, prosecutors, or judges increased. Trial Procedures The constitution and the law provide for the right to a fair and public trial, and an independent judiciary generally enforced this right.
Under the law defendants enjoy the right to the presumption of innocence, have the right to be informed promptly and in detail of the charges against them, and have the right to free linguistic interpretation, as necessary, from the Niger Woman Search. charged through all appeals. Trials should take place without undue delay, but delays were common due to heavy caseloads or procedural inconsistencies.
Defendants have the right to be present at trial.
2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Romania
The law provides for the right to counsel and the right to consult an attorney in a timely manner. The law requires that the government provide an attorney to Niger Woman Search. in criminal cases; the Ministry of Justice paid local bar associations to provide attorneys to indigent clients.
Defendants may confront or question witnesses against them unless the witness is an undercover agent and present witnesses and evidence on their own behalf. Both prosecutors and defendants have a right of appeal. Defendants may not be compelled to testify against themselves and have the right to abstain from making statements. Prosecutors may use any statements by defendants against them in court. The law allows for home detention using electronic monitoring devices, but the government did not procure such devices, and persons were placed under home detention without them.
A judge may detain a person for up to five years during a trial, which is deducted from the prison sentence if the person is convicted. Political Prisoners and Detainees There were no reports of political prisoners or detainees. Civil Judicial Procedures and Remedies Civil courts are independent and function in every jurisdiction.
Judicial and administrative remedies are available to individuals and organizations for violations of human rights by government agencies. Plaintiffs may appeal adverse judgments involving alleged violations of human rights by the state to the ECHR after exhausting the avenues of appeal in domestic courts. Approximately 80 percent of court cases were civil cases.
Caseloads were distributed unevenly, resulting in vastly different efficiency rates in different regions. A lack of both jurisprudence and a modern case management system contributed to a high number Niger Woman Search.
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as well as lengthy trials. Litigants sometimes encountered difficulties enforcing civil verdicts because the procedures for enforcing court orders were unwieldy and prolonged.
Romania - United States Department of State
Property Restitution According to the National Authority for Property Restitution ANRPthe Jewish community is entitled to receive compensation for buildings and land that belonged to the Judaic religious denomination or legal entities of the Jewish community that were confiscated between September 6,and December 22, Individuals are entitled to compensation only for real estate confiscated between and The government has laws and mechanisms in place to address Holocaust-era property claims, and NGOs and advocacy groups reported some progress on resolution of such claims.
Claimants may use the points to bid in auctions of state-owned property or exchange them Niger Woman Search. monetary compensation. The parliament intended the law to speed up restitution, but local authorities hindered property restitution by failing to complete a land inventory stipulated by law.